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Domestic Abuse

4 States of the ‘Cycle of Violence’ Study

4 States of the ‘Cycle of Violence’ Study

What is the ‘Cycle of Violence’?
The ‘Cycle of Violence’ is a psychological ideology founded by Lenore Walker – a clinical psychologist considered to be amongst the pioneers of psychology with regard studies of domestic violence and abused women. 
The Cycle of Violence serves to illustrate the methodology, process, and systematic manifestation of abusive relationships; this ideology not only outlines the events leading up to domestic violence cases, but also the itemization of the gradual unfolding of events resulting in domestic violence. 
Upon understanding the Cycle of Violence, Dr. Walker had hoped to spread the results of her studies in order to provide assistance to individuals suffering from abusive relationships and situations; as a result, victims of domestic violence would be given the opportunity to remove themselves from harmful situations, but individuals would be given the tools to notice patterns within abusive situations. 

The 4 Stages of the Cycle of Violence Study

Within the Cycle of Violence study, Dr. Walker cites the 4 stages of abuse and domestic violence; these stages range from the inception of domestic violence to the tragic and devastating aftereffects:
‘Tension Building’
The building – or rising – of tension is considered to be the first phase of the Cycle of Violence, which manifests itself through passive aggression, the facilitation of distance on the part of the abuser towards the abused partner, and the establishment of a nervous, tense, and agitated state within the romantic relationship – the ‘Tension’ phase results in a heightened sense of fear and anxiety on the part of the abused partner


‘The Incident’
The enactment of the abusive incident in question is considered to be the second phase of the Cycle of Violence, which is classified as the abusive action or expression manifesting itself; abuse taking place within the ‘incident’ phase can include spousal abuse that is physical, emotional, or sexual in nature – the ‘Incident’ phase results in the establishment of intimidation in order to facilitate the abuse taking place

‘Reconciliation’
The enactment of reconciliation undertaken by both individuals participatory within the abusive relationship is considered to be the third phase of the Cycle of Violence, which involves the abuser expressing remorse for their respective actions; in certain cases, the ‘Reconciliation’ phase may involve the abuser denying the abuse that had taken place; Dr. Walker cites that this denial may result in the proliferation of self-doubt and guilt within the abused partner


‘Calm’
The sense of calm and peace subsequent to the abusive incident is considered to be the fourth phase of the Cycle of Violence, which involves the period following the apology or expressed sense of remorse on the part of the abuser; typically, a sentiment of forgiveness or disregard for the prior abuse is not only implicit, but expected within the ‘Calm’ phase – the danger reported within the ‘Cycle of Violence’ study is primarily evident with regard to the repetitive nature innate within this cycle


Assistance for Victims of Domestic Violence

Upon the review of the Cycle of Violence, if any or all of the stages area applicable to you – or your current situation – through the involvement in current Domestic Violence cases or cases that have occurred in the past – you are encouraged to contact their local authorities or law enforcement department in order to report the details of the offense. 
Despite the alarming rate of domestic violence, almost half of domestic violence abuses are not reported; remember – the opportunity to report Domestic Violence offenses in an anonymous fashion is also available to you upon contacting the National Domestic Violence Hotline through their 24-hour telephone number: (800) 799-7233.

Understanding Domestic Abuse

Understanding Domestic Abuse

What is Domestic Abuse?
Domestic abuse refers to the victimization of and individual or individuals resulting from perpetual violence, harassment, or assault undertaken by their respective partners within the realm of a romantic relationship. 
In a more simplistic sense; however Domestic abuse is difficult to address, as a result of the many natures of abuse–domestic abuse may not only take place within a variety settings, but also through the involvement of a vast array of individuals victimized; domestic abuse can take place between married couples, intimate partners or individuals sharing a residence. 
What is Domestic abuse Victimization?
Domestic abuse victimization is defined as both the nature and classification with regard to the individual victims of domestic abuse offenses. Studies undertaking the investigation of the identification of domestic abuse victims cite women as accounting for almost 85% of domestic abuse victims. To elaborate this statistic, women between the ages of 20 and 24 are considered to account for the majority of domestic abuse victims.
Physical Domestic Abuse Defined:

Domestic abuse taking place on a physical level may include any of the following natures of violence or harassment facilitated by the abusive party:
Physical abuse is defined as damage, harm, or injury enacted upon one individual onto another individual or entity
Aggravated physical abuse is defined as the use of a deadly weapon to cause harm, damage, or injury with regard to another individual or entity

Domestic Abuse on an Emotional and Psychological Level:

Domestic abuse, which takes place on both psychological and emotional level, may include any of the following natures of harassment facilitated by the aggressive party:
Emotional and Psychological domestic abuse can include threats, which are defined as the unlawful, conditional expressions of criminal or negative recourse contingent on the behavior of the recipient of the threat itself. This aspect of emotional and psychological domestic abuse is typically extortive in nature; the more serious aspect of threats; however, include aggravated threats include threats posed resulting in murder, rape, or maiming.
Domestic Abuse in a Sexual Nature:

Domestic abuse of a sexual nature refers to a forced act of a sexual nature that is placed on of the partners. Spousal rape, for example, is the act of forced, non-consensual intercourse enacted by a partner of a romantic relationship onto the other; regardless of the participation within a romantic relationship, the severity of a spousal rape offense is considered to be analogous to a standard rape charge. 
In addition to physical contact of a sexual nature, domestic abuse in this classification can include verbal and psychological abuse, which is defined as both speech and expressions set forth, typically demeaning, insulting, damaging, or threatening in nature.
What to do if you are a victim of Domestic Violence?

If you are a victim of domestic violence, it is strongly recommended that you seek aid through a Domestic Violence assistance program or organization. These groups will provide helpful and preventative resources that are available for victims of domestic violence. Furthermore, if you are a victim of domestic abuse, you must contact your local authorities or law enforcement department in order to report the details of the offense:
A multitude of resources and assistance exist; please contact the appropriate government department, such as the National Domestic Violence Hotline through their 24-hour telephone number: (800) 799-7233
Individuals are also given the opportunity to report Domestic Violence offenses in an anonymous fashion; remember, no one deserves to be victimized by Domestic Violence

Understanding Spousal Abuse

Understanding Spousal Abuse

What is Spousal abuse?

Spousal abuse is defined as the victimization of an individual resulting from abuse, attacks, or assault undertaken by their respective partners within the realm of a married relationship. That being said, spousal abuse, as a result of the varied kinds of abuse is difficult to address; spousal abuse can be inflicted on the victimized party in a physical, emotional, sexual or psychological fashion. Regardless of the type of spousal abuse; however, all instances of the actions have debilitating effects on the victimized party.
Spousal abuse Victimization Defined:

Spousal abuse victimization is defined as both the nature and classification with regard to the individual victims of Spousal abuse offenses. Studies undertaking the investigation of the identification of Spousal abuse victims cite women as accounting for almost 85% of Spousal abuse victims; furthermore, within that percentage, women between the ages of 20 and 24 are considered to account for the majority of Spousal abuse victims.
Physical Spousal Abuse Defined:
Physical spousal abuse is defined as damage, harm, or injury enacted upon a husband or a wife by the other individual involved in the marriage.
Aggravated physical abuse, which is the more severe form of physical spousal abuse, is defined as the use of a deadly weapon to cause harm, damage, or injury with regard to another individual or entity
Emotional and Psychological Spousal abuse defined:
Non-violent forms of spousal abuse include the delivery of threats, intimidation, name-calling, perpetual belittlement or any verbal or emotional attacks that aim to take control or instill fear in the victimized partner. 
Threats are defined as the unlawful, conditional expressions of criminal or negative recourse contingent on the behavior of the recipient of the threat itself; threats are typically extortive in nature – aggravated threats include threats posed resulting in murder, rape, or maiming
Verbal and psychological abuse is defined as both speech and expressions set forth, typically demeaning, insulting, damaging, or threatening in nature 
Sexually-charged Spousal Abuse defined:

Spousal abuse, in a sexual nature refers to the administration of any unwanted or forced sexual acts. Spousal rape, for instance, is the act of forced, non-consensual intercourse enacted by either the husband or wife onto the other partner; regardless of the participation within a romantic relationship, the severity of a spousal rape offense is considered to be analogous to a standard rape charge
What to do if you are a Victim of Spousal Abuse?

Spousal abuse assistance refers to any helpful and preventative resource made available for victims of Spousal abuse. Although these resources are available to the public, half of these Spousal abuse acts go unreported; in the event that an individual has been made aware of ongoing Spousal abuse, or has been involved within Spousal abuse cases that have occurred in the past, they are encouraged to contact their local authorities or law enforcement department in order to report the details of the offense:
A multitude of resources and assistance exist; please contact the appropriate government department, such as the National Spousal abuse Hotline through their 24-hour telephone number: (800) 799-7233
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